Boulder's audit plan was designed to bring the Principles and Best Practices for Post-Election Audits to bear on Colorado elections.
It makes much better use of the amount of work that Colorado law generally calls for in audits. It audits the same total number of audit units that other counties were required to audit - one per contest. In other counties that was spread out over 5% of the machines, and mail-in and central count ballots were treated specially and audited far less. Boulder treated centrally counted and mail-in ballots the same as others, which led to more total ballots being counted.
We obtained prior approval from the Secretary of State's office for doing this enhanced audit.
It is important to do the steps in the audit in the proper sequence. In particular, the reports to be audited must be published before the selections or counting begins. These were the steps:
The descriptions below may seem complicated in places, but remember that the complicated parts are handled automatically by the open source ElectionAudits software.
It is very important for the transparency of the audit to publish detailed audit reports, with full election results on each audit unit (a batch, precinct or DRE machine), before the audit or random selection is done.
We did this via the open source ElectionAudits software. It read in cumulative xml reports that were produced by election staff during the original tally for each of the 525 audit units. There was one cumulative report for each Mobile Ballot Box (MBB) that was fed into the Hart InterCivic tally system.
Then we published that data on the web site:
The contests to audit, and audit units within the contests, were selected randomly. We started the random selection by throwing dice to generate a random "seed". The procedure was designed so that even if observers distrusted all but one of the people throwing the dice, they would still know that the entire random selection procedure would incorporate a significant amount of randomness from the dice thrown by the one person they trusted. See the papers referenced below for more background.
First we gave a sheet of paper to each participant, and assigned each a participant number between one and five. Each participant then threw three differently colored translucent 10-sided dice in private, and wrote down the numbers showing on the dice in the order 1) grey 2) yellow 3) blue on the piece of paper and folded it over. Finally we brought the papers back, unfolded them and entered the numbers in order into the ElectionAudits software. The 15 digits of the random seed were 702758241994347 (e.g. the first person's throws were grey: 7, yellow: 0 and blue: 2).
Next we used the "Sum of Square Roots" (SSR) pseudorandom number generator (see the references below) to generate pseudorandom numbers for each of the 525 batches. The number for each batch is based on both the batch sequence number and the random seed from the dice. We also used it to generate random numbers for the selection of the contests to be audited.
The great thing about SSR is how transparent it is. It is easy for anyone to verify the random numbers that are assigned to each batch with nothing more than a calculator.
For example, here is how to use the random seed we rolled to verify the random number for the top batch in the State Representative - District 33 race. As you see at the top of that page, the first batch has a batch sequence number of 000149, and is named "p174mb152". The SSR method mixes the random dice throws with the sequence number like this. Take the first two digits of the sequence number (00) and the first 5 digits of the random seed (70275) to make the number 0070275, and enter that into a calculator. Hit the square root key, and get 265.094322.
Hit the "+" key and then do the same with the next two digts of the batch sequence (01) and the next five digits of the seed (82419). The square root of 0182419 is 427.105373, and hitting plus again yields 692.199696.
Finish by doing the same steps one more time with the remaining digits. Sqrt(4994347) is 2234.803570, and hitting "+" one more time (or "=") shows the final sum: 2927.003267. The fractional part is the random number we're looking for: 0.003267, and that is the number shown in the "Random" column. It is a low number, which gives this batch a high probability of selection as we'll see below.
Note: since it is derived via a formula, it is not really a random number, like the random seed from the dice. It is a "pseudorandom" number, but as discussed in the references, it is unpredictable and varied enough for our purposes, and we'll generally use the the term "random" as a shorthand. You can see how much difference the dice rolls make by looking at the same race with a different random seed. The big batches still tend to show up at the top, as desired, but are in a very different order.
As discussed in the paper On Auditing Elections When Precincts Have Different Sizes, audits can achieve much more confidence for a given amount of effort if the audit units are selected in proportion to their size. The Boulder audit used the "NEGEXP" method from that paper. It has the additional benefit of sharing the same batch for multiple audit units, which can also make the counting and paper handling more efficient.
When using NEGEXP, a threshold is first assigned to each batch. The threshold is larger for larger audit units, based on the "negative exponential" of the size, as discussed in the paper. The pseudorandom number calculated for the batch is then compared to the threshold. The larger the threshold in comparison to the random number, the more likely the unit is to be selected. The "Priority" in the tables of audit units is the threshold divided by the random number, so the priority is larger for larger thresholds (larger batches), or for lower random numbers. The audit selections are then chosen in decreasing order by priority. Incorporating the random number in the priority keeps us us from invariably auditing only the largest batches, which would make it easy for an adversary to know which batches to avoid.
In the example above, the threshold is 0.026777, and when that is divided by the random number for the batch (0.003267) we get the priority, 8.196011, which is greater than any of the other audit units.
Note: In our procedure, we used the "expected number of precincts audited" that was calculated for the NEGEXP method and took that many batches in priority order (rounding the number up to be conservative). The normal NEGEXP procedure is to instead simply select all audit units for which the threshold is greater than the random number. That would be better, but requires some updates to the software to calculate the thresholds appropriately when there are audit units outside of the county and the proportion is less than 100%.
We wanted to put the 65 audit units to good use by doing more efficient and effective "risk-sensitive" audits, which audit multiple audit units for close contests. Given that we would audit 65 contests, that meant that not every contest would be audited in Boulder, but the random contest selection procedure ensured that every contest would still stand a chance of being audited.
We needed the overall margin of victory for all of the contests. This data should incorporate under votes and over votes. ElectionAudits automatically generates proper margins for contests that are entirely within the county. But we actually can't find all this data for wider races aggregated anywhere, so we used estimates from newspaper web sites. Amazingly, the best data came not from local newspapers, but from usatoday.com, where the data was easier to copy and paste than it was from most web sites.
We then selected the contests.
We decided to be certain to audit the presidential race.
We then randomly chose 10 other contests for risk-sensitive audits: 6 state-wide, and 4 local or regional.
We weighted the contest selection probabilities by the inverse of the margin. So a contest with a 2% margin would be 10 times as likely to be selected as one with a 20% margin. These are likely to be the contests of greatest interest also. In the future we will consider incorporating a measure of citizen interest like the fraction of undervotes for each contest, or number of total valid votes. We assigned 1/margin as priority values to each contest, assigned random numbers to each one as in the NEGEXP method, divided the priority by the random numbers, sorted the contests by priority, and chose the top races for each category.
We determined a desired level of "confidence", assuming a 20% maximum within-precinct-miscount (WPM) as discussed in the NEGEXP and SAFE papers:
State contests: 99% confidence
Local contests: 75% confidence desired, but with a cap of 10 random audit units per contest
Without the cap of 10, one contest could require all 65 units and we wouldn't be able to audit any other contests. Given the number and size distribution of audit units in Boulder, that limit on 10 audit units is equivalent to saying we'll audit to 75% confidence for races down to about a 5% margin, but achieve less confidence for tighter ones.
Note that these "confidence" levels are subject to interpretation.
On the one hand, the numbers are very conservative. They apply not only to cases where there are software bugs, but also to cases where an adversary has total control over the tally computers, and can report any tallies for any audit units. Of course there are security controls in place, bonding of employees, testing of code, etc. etc. so that is very rarely the case, and confidence in election outcomes is generally far higher than the confidence given here.
On the other hand, some statisticians don't think the 20% WPM assumption is warranted, even given that we allowed for audit units to be targeted if they did not seem to fit within this assumption. We also calculated the size for weighting the selections based on just the "contest ballots", even when those contest ballots were infrequent in a given batch. And we applied the WPM ot that same size. The canvass procedures should validate how many valid ballots for a given contest went in to each batch. Otherwise an adversary could set the results for a given batch to zero for a contest and thus make it very unlikely to be selected. That level of canvassing was not done for this election. So the level of confidence may be overstated, especially for contests that were not on all the ballots in the county. For a more rigorous and conservative approach, see Philip B. Stark, Papers and Talks on Voting and Election Auditing.
Based on the margin and confidence level, we determined how many audit units to select for each contest. In contests that extended outside the borders of Boulder County, we audited our share of the total number pro-rated by the proportion of the ballots cast in Boulder County. Note that we had the same difficulty obtaining good numbers for these proportions as we did for the margins.
If the total number of audit units to be randomly selected for the 11 contests was less than 65, and if some of the contests had been capped at 10 audit units as noted before, we planned to relax the caps and add more audit units for the contests in order to bring up the minimum confidence level to as close to 75% as possible.
If the number was still less than 65, add additional contests in priority order as before. In this election, we added two more contests.
The Canvass board also has the discretion to target suspicious audit units based on their own insights or public input received by Nov 18th. This helps with the 20% minimum WPM assumption and can be used to address specific issues like scanning problems or general process improvement.
If there is a machine recount required based on < 0.5% margin or if someone eligible wants to pay, we face an additional difficulty. Our ballots are generally 4 pages (2 sheets, back-to-back), 11 x 17". But each ballot has a unique sequence number, and our version of the the Hart BallotNow system rejects ballots that come out of sequence, forcing operators to find matching pairs and re-scan. This is reportedly fixed in more recent versions of the software.
So it would be risky to hand count the ballots by sorting them in to piles and keeping the pairs together. It would be problematic to have to match all the ballot back together.
As a result, we audited via the "announce and tally" method, rather than the "sort stack and count" method, even though it is generally considered to be less accurate.
As usual, the hand counters did not know what the machine tallies were when they did their counts. The counters tallied each audit unit twice. We told the counters to not worry too much about a discrepancy of one or two in their counts. But if their two counts were off by more than two, they recounted until they got two similar tallies.
In a few cases, when we checked their tally against the machine tally it differed by more than two. In the case of one batch (with two audit units), it turned out that we had not given them three ballots that should have been included in their pile of ballots, and that made the difference. In another case, we found that another hand count (again without knowing the machine count) came up with a match. And in another case we tracked it down to a mistake with one overcount in the manual resolution process during the original machine tally.
The remaining small differences in the machine and manual tallies might be due either to the difficulty of the hand count method and the instructions to not ensure that counts match, or to other infrequent problems with the machine count. But even so we can have more confidence in the results than ever before, especially for the close contests that were audited. Given more time for analysis, and with the added experience we now have, and improvements in the software and hand tally methods, we will be able to do even better in the future.
If there are significant discrepancies for a given contest, audit additional audit units, escalating to a full manual recount if the outcome is significantly in doubt. Note that the methods described by Stark (above) would provide a precise way to calculate this.
It is very hard to get state-wide results for the contests with the necessary counts for under votes and over votes. The Secretary of State should gather these starting on election night and publish it on their web site, so we don't have to rely on newspaper reports.